Difference between revisions of "Aphrodite"

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== Birth ==
 
== Birth ==
"Foam-arisen" Aphrodite was born of the sea foam near [[Paphos]], Cyprus after [[Cronus]] cut off [[Uranus (god)|Uranus]]' genitals and the elder god's blood and semen dropped on the sea, where they began to foam. Aphrodite was born fully grown out of the foam.  Thus Aphrodite is of an older generation than Zeus.  ''[[Iliad]]'' (Book V) expresses another version of her origin, by which she was considered a daughter of [[Dione (mythology)|Dione]], who was the original oracular goddess ("Dione" being simply "the goddess," etymologically an equivalent of "[[Diana]]") at [[Dodona]].  In Homer, Aphrodite, venturing into battle to protect her favorite Aeneas, has been wounded by Diomedes and returns to her mother, to sink down at her knee and be comforted.  "Dione" seems to be an equivalent of Rhea, the [[Earth Mother]], whom Homer has relocated to Olympus.  After this story, Aphrodite herself was sometimes referred to as "Dione".  Once [[Zeus]] had usurped the oak-grove oracle at Dodona, some poets made him out to be the father of Aphrodite.
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"Foam-arisen" Aphrodite was born of the sea foam near [[Paphos]], Cyprus after [[Cronus]] cut off [[Uranus (god)|Uranus]]' genitals and the elder god's blood and semen dropped on the sea, where they began to foam. Aphrodite was born fully grown out of the foam.  Thus Aphrodite is of an older generation than Zeus.  ''[[Iliad]]'' (Book V) expresses another version of her origin, by which she was considered a daughter of [[Dione]], who was the original oracular goddess ("Dione" being simply "the goddess," etymologically an equivalent of "[[Diana]]") at [[Dodona]].  In Homer, Aphrodite, venturing into battle to protect her favorite Aeneas, has been wounded by Diomedes and returns to her mother, to sink down at her knee and be comforted.  "Dione" seems to be an equivalent of Rhea, the [[Earth Mother]], whom Homer has relocated to Olympus.  After this story, Aphrodite herself was sometimes referred to as "Dione".  Once [[Zeus]] had usurped the oak-grove oracle at Dodona, some poets made him out to be the father of Aphrodite.
  
 
Aphrodite's chief center of worship remained at Paphos, close to the Syrian coast, where the goddess of desire had long been worshipped as [[Ishtar]] and [[Ashtaroth]].  It is said that she first tentatively came ashore at [[Cytherea]], a stopping place for trade and culture between Crete and the Peloponesus.  Thus perhaps we have hints of the track of Aphrodite's original cult from the Levant to mainland Greece.  
 
Aphrodite's chief center of worship remained at Paphos, close to the Syrian coast, where the goddess of desire had long been worshipped as [[Ishtar]] and [[Ashtaroth]].  It is said that she first tentatively came ashore at [[Cytherea]], a stopping place for trade and culture between Crete and the Peloponesus.  Thus perhaps we have hints of the track of Aphrodite's original cult from the Levant to mainland Greece.  

Latest revision as of 17:09, 12 November 2010

Aphrodite (Ἀφροδῑ´τη, "risen from sea-foam") is the Greek goddess of love, sex and beauty.

Worship

The epithet Aphrodite Acidalia was occasionally added to her name, after the spring she used to bathe in, located in Boeotia (Virgil I, 720). She was also called Kypris or Cytherea after her alleged birth-places in Cyprus and Cythera, respectively. The island of Cythera was a center of her cult. She was associated with Hesperia and frequently accompanied by the Oreads, nymphs of the mountains.

Aphrodite had a festival of her own, Aphrodisiac, which was celebrated all over Greece but particularly in Athens and Corinth. In Corinth, intercourse with her priestesses was considered a method of worshipping Aphrodite.

Aphrodite was associated with, and often depicted with dolphins, doves, swans, pomegranates and lime trees.

Her Roman analogue is Venus. Her Mesopotamian counterpart was Ishtar and her Syro-Palestinian counterpart was Ashtart (in standard Greek spelling Astarte); her Etruscan equivalent was Turan.

The birth of Venus by Odilon Redon

Birth

"Foam-arisen" Aphrodite was born of the sea foam near Paphos, Cyprus after Cronus cut off Uranus' genitals and the elder god's blood and semen dropped on the sea, where they began to foam. Aphrodite was born fully grown out of the foam. Thus Aphrodite is of an older generation than Zeus. Iliad (Book V) expresses another version of her origin, by which she was considered a daughter of Dione, who was the original oracular goddess ("Dione" being simply "the goddess," etymologically an equivalent of "Diana") at Dodona. In Homer, Aphrodite, venturing into battle to protect her favorite Aeneas, has been wounded by Diomedes and returns to her mother, to sink down at her knee and be comforted. "Dione" seems to be an equivalent of Rhea, the Earth Mother, whom Homer has relocated to Olympus. After this story, Aphrodite herself was sometimes referred to as "Dione". Once Zeus had usurped the oak-grove oracle at Dodona, some poets made him out to be the father of Aphrodite.

Aphrodite's chief center of worship remained at Paphos, close to the Syrian coast, where the goddess of desire had long been worshipped as Ishtar and Ashtaroth. It is said that she first tentatively came ashore at Cytherea, a stopping place for trade and culture between Crete and the Peloponesus. Thus perhaps we have hints of the track of Aphrodite's original cult from the Levant to mainland Greece.

Plato considered that Aphrodite had two manifestations, reflecting both stories, Aphrodite Ourania ("heavenly" Aphrodite), and Aphrodite Pandemos ("Common" Aphrodite). According to Plato these two manifestations represented her role in homosexuality and heterosexuality, respectively (homosexuality being more divine for Plato).

Alternatively, Aphrodite was a daughter of Thalassa (for she was born of the Sea) and Zeus.

Adulthood

Marriage With Hephaestus

Due to her immense beauty, Zeus was frightened she would be the cause of violence between the other gods. He married her off to Hephaestus, the dour, humorless god of smithing. Hephaestus was overjoyed at being married to the goddess of beauty and forged her beautiful jewelry, including a girdle that made her even more irresistible to men. Her unhappiness with her marriage caused Aphrodite to seek out companionship from others, most frequently Ares, but also Adonis, Anchises and more. Hephaestus once cleverly caught Ares and Aphrodite in bed with a net, and brought all the other Olympian gods together to mock them. Hephaestus would not free them until they promised to end their affair, but both escaped as soon as the net was lifted and their promise was not kept.

Aphrodite and Psyche

Aphrodite was jealous of the beauty of a mortal woman named Psyche. She asked Eros to use his golden arrows to cause Psyche to fall in love with the ugliest man on earth. Eros agreed but then fell in love with Psyche on his own, or by accidentally pricking himself with a golden arrow. Meanwhile, Psyche's parents were anxious that their daughter remained unmarried. They consulted an oracle who told them she was destined for no mortal lover, but a monster who lived on top of a particular mountain. Psyche was resigned to her fate and climbed to the top of the mountain. There, Zephyrus, the west wind, gently floated her downwards. She entered a cave on the appointed mountain, surprised to find it full of jewelry and finery. Eros visited her every night in the cave and they made love; he demanded only that she never light any lamps because he did not want her to know who he was (having wings made him distinctive). Her two sisters, jealous of Psyche, convinced her to do so one night and she lit a lamp, recognizing him instantly. A drop of hot lamp oil fell on Eros' chest and he awoke, then fled.

When Psyche told her two jealous elder sisters what had happened; they rejoiced secretly and each separately walked to the top of the mountain and did as Psyche described her entry to the cave, hoping Eros would pick them instead. Zephyrus did not pick them and they fell to their deaths at the base of the mountain.

Psyche searched for her lover across much of Greece, finally stumbling into a temple to Demeter, where the floor was covered with piles of mixed grains. She started sorting the grains into organized piles and, when she finished, Demeter spoke to her, telling her that the best way to find Eros was to find his mother, Aphrodite, and earn her blessing. Psyche found a temple to Aphrodite and entered it. Aphrodite assigned her a similar task to Demeter's temple, but gave her an impossible deadline to finish it by. Eros intervened, for he still loved her, and caused some ants to organize the grains for her. Aphrodite was outraged at her success and told her to go to a field where golden sheep grazed and get some golden wool. Psyche went to the field and saw the sheep but was stopped by a river-god, whose river she had to cross to enter the field. He told her the sheep were mean and vicious and would kill her, but if she waited until noontime, the sheep would go the shade on the other side of the field and sleep; she could pick the wool that stuck to the branches and bark of the trees. Psyche did so and Aphrodite was even more outraged at her survival and success. Finally, Aphrodite claimed that the stress of caring for her son, depressed and ill as a result of Psyche's unfaithfulness, had caused her to lose some of her beauty. Psyche was to go to Hades and ask Persephone, the queen of the underworld, for a bit of her beauty in a black box that Aphrodite gave to Psyche. Psyche walked to a tower, deciding that the quickest way to the underworld would be to die. A voice stopped her at the last moment and told her a route that would allow her to enter and return still living, as well as telling her how to pass Cerberus, Charon and the other dangers of the route. She pacified Cerberus, the three-headed dog, with a sweet honey-cake and paid Charon an obolus to take her into Hades. Once there, Persephone offered her a feast but Psyche refused, knowing it would keep her in the underworld forever.

Psyche left the underworld and decided to open the box and take a little bit of the beauty for herself. Inside was a "Stygian sleep" which overtook her. Eros, who had forgiven her, flew to her body and healed her, then begged Zeus and Aphrodite for their consent to his wedding of Psyche. They agreed and Zeus made her immortal.

Copy after Praxiteles. Aphrodite of the Syracuse type. Parian marble, Roman copy of the 2nd century CE after a Greek original of the 4th century BC; neck, head and left arm are restorations by Antonio Canova. Found at Baiae, Southern Italy.

Adonis

Aphrodite was Adonis' lover and had a part in his birth. She urged Myrrha or Smyrna to commit incest with her father, Theias, the King of Assyria. Another version says Myrrha's father was Cinyras of Cyprus. Myrrha's nurse helped with the scheme. When Theias discovered this, he flew into a rage, chasing his daughter with a knife. The gods turned her into a myrrh tree and Adonis eventually sprung from this tree. Alternatively, Aphrodite turned her into a tree and Adonis was born when Theias shot the tree with an arrow or when a boar used its tusks to tear the tree's bark off.

Once Adonis was born, Aphrodite took him under her wing, seducing him with the help of Helene, her friend, and was entranced by his unearthly beauty. She gave him to Persephone to watch over, but Persephone was also amazed at his beauty and refused to give him back. The argument between the two goddess' was settled either by Zeus or Calliope, with Adonis spending four months with Aphrodite, four months with Persephone and four months of the years with whomever he chose. He always chose Aphrodite because Persephone was the cold, unfeeling goddess of the underworld.

Adonis was eventually killed by a jealous Ares.

The Judgement of Paris

The gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis (the eventual parents of Achilles). Only the goddess Eris (Discord) was not invited, but she arrived with a golden apple inscribed with the words "to the most beautiful," which she threw among the goddesses. Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena all claimed the apple, and the matter was put before Paris, the most handsome mortal. Hera tried to bribe Paris with an earthly kingdom, while Athena offered great military skill, but Aphrodite was judged most beautiful when she offered Paris the most beautiful mortal woman as a wife. This woman was Helen, and her abduction by Paris led to the Trojan War.

Pygmalion and Galatea

Pygmalion was a lonely sculptor who made a woman out of ivory and called her Galatea. He prayed to Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty and love, who took pity on the lovesick artist, and brought to life the exquisite sculpture. Pygmalion loved Galatea and they were soon married.

Other Stories

In one version of the story of Hippolytus, Aphrodite was the catalyst for his death. He scorned the worship of Aphrodite for Artemis and, in revenge, Aphrodite caused his step-mother, Phaedra to fall in love with him, knowing Hippolytus would reject her. In the most popular version of the story, Phaedra seeks revenge against Hippolytus by killing herself and, in her suicide note, telling Theseus, her husband and Hippolytus' father, that Hippolytus had raped her. Theseus then murdered his own son before Artemis told him the truth.

King Glaucus of Corinth angered Aphrodite and she made her horses angry during the funeral games of King Pelias. They tore him apart. His ghost supposedly frightened horses during the Isthmian Games.

Aphrodite was often accompanied by the Charites.

In book III of Homer's Iliad, Aphrodite saves Paris when he is about to be killed by Menelaos.

Aphrodite was very protective of her son, Aeneas, who fought in the Trojan War. Diomedes almost killed Aeneas in battle but Aphrodite saved him. Diomedes wounded Aphrodite and she dropped her son, fleeing to Mt. Olympus. Aeneas was then eneveloped in a cloud by Apollo, who took him to Pergamos, a sacred spot in Troy. Artemis healed Aeneas there.

She turned Abas to stone for his pride.

She turned Anaxarete to stone for reacting so dispassionately to Iphis' pleas to love him, even after his suicide.

In another story, the daughter Atalanta of a king was cast out because she was a girl, instead of the prince the king wanted to carry on his name. She was so fast that she could out run deer. When she grew-up, she traveled around the kingdom to find people to race. In the kingdom she meets her father, and comes to live with him. Her father is old and wants her to marry. So she has a race. Every man who wants her hand in marriage must race her. The man who wins wins her hand, and all who lose lose their heads. She thinks that no one will take the challenge, but many men come. She races Hippomenes, and the night before he has a dream in which Aphrodite appears. She gives him three golden apples that will help him win the race, but does not tell him how to use them. The next day they start the race and he remembers the golden apples. He throws down the first one when she gets ahead, and she stops to pick it up. He repeats this with the other two apples, and wins the race. As promised, Atalanta marries him. But the couple never thank Aphrodite for helping them. Aphrodite is angry and turns them both into lions, to fight for the rest of their lives.

Consorts and children

Other names

  • Akidalia (Ακιδαλία), a surname of Venus (Virg. Aen. i. 720), which according to Servius was derived from the well Acidalius near Orchomenos, in which Venus used to bathe with the Graces; others connect the name with the Greek akides, i. e. cares or troubles.
  • Akraia (Ακραία). Acraea and Acraeus are also attributes given to various goddesses and gods whose temples were situated upon hills, such as Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Pallas, Artemis, and others. (Paus. i. 1. § 3, ii. 24. § 1; Apollod. i. 9. § 28; Vitruv. i. 7; Spanheim, ad Callim. Hymn in Jov. 82.)
  • Alitta or Alilat (Αλιττα or Αλιλατ), the name by which, according to Herodotus (i. 131, iii. 8), the Arabs called Aphrodite Urania.
  • Amathousia or Amathountia(Αμαθουσία or Αμαθουντία), a surname of Aphrodite, which is derived from the town of Amathus in Cyprus, one of the most ancient seats of her worship. (Tac. Annal. iii. 62; Ov. Amor. iii. 15. 15; Virg. Cir. 242; Catull. Ixviii. 51.)
  • Ambοlogera(Αμβολογηέρα), from anaballô and gêras "delaying old age," as a surname of Aphrodite, who had a statue at Sparta under this name. (Paus. iii. 18. § 1; Plut. Sympos. iii. 6.)
  • Anadyomene (Αναδυομένη), the goddess rising out of the sea, a surname given to Aphrodite, in allusion to the story of her being born from the foam of the sea. This surname had not much celebrity previous to the time of Apelles, but his famous painting of Aphrodite Anadyomene, in which the goddess was represented as rising from the sea and drying her hair with her hands, at once drew great attention to this poetical idea, and excited the emulation of other artists, painters as well as sculptors. The painting of Apelles was made for the inhabitants of the island of Cos, who set it up in their temple of Asclepius. Its beauty induced Augustus to have it removed to Rome, and the Coans were indemnified by a reduction in their taxes of 100 talents. In the time of Nero the greater part of the picture had become effaced, and it was replaced by the work of another artist. (Strab. xiv. p. 657; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 36. §§ 12. and 15; Auson. Ep. 106; Paus. ii. 1. § 7.)
  • Ανθεία (Antheia), the blooming, or the friend of flowers... Antheia was used at Cnossus as a surname of Aphrodite. (Hesych. s. v.)
  • Apatouria or Apatouros (Απατουρία or Απάτουρος), that is, the deceitful. A surname of Aphrodite at Phanagoria and other places in the Taurian Chersonesus, where it originated, according fo tradition, in this way : Aphrodite was attacked by giants, and called Heracles to her assistance. He concealed himself with her in a cavern, and as the giants approached her one by one, she surrendered them to Heracles to kill them. (Strab. xi. p. 495; Steph. Byz. s. v. Apatouron.)
  • Aphakitis (Αφακίτις), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the town of Aphace in Coele-Syria, where she had a celebrated temple with an oracle, which was destroyed by the command of the emperor Constantine. (Zosimus, i. 58.)
  • Apostrophia (Αποστρόφια), "the expeller," a surname of Aphrodite, under which she was worshipped at Thebes, and which described her as the goddess who expelled from the hearts of men the desire after sinful pleasure and lust. Her worship under this name was believed to have been instituted by Harmonia, together with that of Aphrodite Urania and Pandemos, and the antiquity of her statues confirmed this belief. (Paus. ix. 16. § 2.)
  • Arakunthias (Αρακυνθιάς), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from mount Aracynthus, the position of which is a matter of uncertainty, and on which she had a temple. (Rhianus, ap. Steph. Byz. s. v. Arakunthos.)
  • Areia (Αρεία), the warlike. A surname of Aphrodite, when represented in full armour like Ares, as was the case at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 17. § 5.)
  • Argennis (Αργεννίς), a surname of Aphrodite, which she derived from Argennus, a favourite of Agamemnon, after whose death, in the river Cephissus, Agamemnon built a sanctuary of Aphrodite Argennis. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Argennis ; Athen. xiii. p. 608.)
  • Callipugos (Καλλίπυγος), a surname of Aphrodite, of which the origin is related by Athenaeus. (xii. p. 554; comp. Alciphron, i. 39.) We still possess some representations of Aphrodite Callipygos, which are distinguished for their great softness, luxuriancy, and roundness of form. (Hirt, Mythol. Bilderb. i. p. 59.)
  • Cnidia (Κνιδία), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the town of Cnidus in Caria, for which Praxiteles made his celebrated statue of the goddess. The statue of Aphrodite known by the name of the Medicean Venus, is considered by many critics to be a copy of the Cnidian Aphrodite. (Paus. i. 1. § 3; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5; Lucian, Amor. 13; Hirt, Mythol. Bilderb. p. 57.)
  • Colias (Kωλιάς), a surname of Aphrodite, who had a statue on the Attic promontory of Colias. (Paus. i. 1. § 4; comp. Herod. viii. 96; Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 56.) Strabo (ix. p. 398) places a sanctuary of Aphrodite Colias in the neighbourhood of Anaphlystus.
  • Cypria, Cypris, Cyprigeneia or Cyprogenes (Κυπρία, Kυπρίς, Kυπρογένηα, Κυπρογενής), surnames of Aphrodite, who was born in the island of Cyprus, which was also one of the principal seats of her worship. (Hom. Il. v. 458; Pind. Ol. i. 120, xi. 125, Pyth. iv. 383; Tibull. iii. 3. 34; Hor. Carm. i. 3. 1.)
  • Cythera, Cythereia or Cytherias (Κυθήρα, Κυθερεία ή Κυθεριάς), different forms of a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the town of Cythera in Crete, or from the island of Cythera, where the goddess was said to have first landed, and where she had a celebrated temple. (Hom. Od. viii. 288; Herod. i. 105; Paus. iii. 23. § 1 ; Anacr. v. 9; Horat. Carm. i. 4. 5.)
  • Despoina (Δέσποινα), the ruling goddess or the mistress, occurs as a surname of several divinities, such as Aphrodite (Theocrit. xv. 100), Demeter (Aristoph. Thesm. 286), and Persephone. (Paus. viii. 37. § 6.)
  • Dionaea (Διωναία), a metronymic form of Dione, and applied to her daughter Aphrodite. (Orph. Arg. 1320; Virg. Aen. iii. 19.) The name is also applied as an epithet to things which were sacred to her, such as the dove. (Stat. Silv. iii. 5. 80.)
  • Erycine (Ερυκίνη), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from mount Eryx, in Sicily, where she had a famous temple, which was said to have been built by Eryx, a son of Aphrodite and the Sicilian king Butes. (Diod. iv. 83.) Virgil (Aen. v. 760) makes Aeneias build the temple. Psophis, a daughter of Eryx, was believed to have founded a temple of Aphrodite Erycina, at Psophis, in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 24. § 3.) From Sicily the worship of Aphrodite (Venus) Erycina was introduced at Rome about the beginning of the second Punic war (Liv. xxii. 9, 10, xxiii. 30, &c.), and in B. C. 181 a temple was built to her outside the Porta Collatina. (Liv. xl. 34; Ov. Fast. iv. 871, Rem. Amor. 549 ; Strab. vi. p. 272; comp. Cic. in Verr. iv. 8; Horat. Carm. i. 2. 33; Ov. Heroid. xv. 57.)
  • Gemelii(Γαμήλιοι θεοί), that is, the divinities protecting and presiding over marriage. (Pollux, i. 24; Maxim. Tyr. xxvi. 6.) Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 2) says, that those who married required (the protection of) five divinities, viz. Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Peitho, and Artemis. (Comp. Dion Chrys. Orat. vii. p. 568.) But these are not all, for the Moerae too are called theai gamêliai (Spanheim ad Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 23, in Del. 292, 297), and, in fact, nearly all the gods might be regarded as the protectors of marriage, though the five mentioned by Plutarch perhaps more particularly than others. The Athenians called their month of Gamelion after these divinities. Respecting the festival of the Gamelia see Dict. of Ant. s. v.
  • Genetyllis (Γενετυλλίς), the protectress of births, occurs both as a surname of Aphrodite (Aristoph. Nub. 52, with the Schol.), and as a distinct divinity and a companion of Aphrodite. (Suidas.) (Genetyllis was also considered as a surname of Artemis, to whom women sacrificed dogs. (Hesych. s. v. Genetulis; Aristoph. Lys. 2.) We also find the plural, Genetullides, or Gennaïdes, as a class of divinities presiding over generation and birth, and as companions of Aphrodite Colias. (Aristoph. Thesmoph. 130; Paus. i. § 4; Alciph. iii. 2; comp. Bentley ad Hor. Carm. Saec. 16.)
  • Hecaerge (Hekaergê) . . . The name Hecaerge signifies hitting at a distance . . . Artemis bore the surname of Hecaerge. (Anton. Lib. 13.) Aphrodite had the same surname at Iulis in Cos. (Anton. Lib. 1.)
  • Idalia (Ιδαλία). a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the town of Idalion in Cyprus. (Virg. Aen. i. 680, 692, v. 760, x. 86; Ov. Art. Am. iii. 106; Strab.xiv. p. 682; Theocrit. xv. 101; Bion, i. 36.)
  • Limenia, Limenites, Limenitis and 'Limenoskopus (Λιμενία, Λιμενίτης, Λιμενίτις και Λιμενοσκόπος), i. e. the protector or superintendent of the harbour, occurs as a surname of several divinities, such as Zeus (Callimach. Fragm. 114, 2ded. Bentl.), Artemis (Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 259), Aphrodite (Paus. ii. 34. § 11; Serv. ad Aen. i. 724), Priapus (Anthol. Palat. x. 1, 7), and of Pan (Anthol. Palat. x. 10.)
  • Makhanitis or Mechaneus(Μαχανίτις or Μηχανεύς), skilled in inventing, was a surname of Zeus at Argos (Paus. ii. 22, § 3). The feminine form, Mechanitis (Mêchanitis), occurs as a surname of Aphrodite, at Megalopolis, and of Athena. in the same neighbourhood. (Paus. viii. 31, § 3, 36, § 3.)
  • Melaenis(Μελαινίς), i.e. the dark, a surname of Aphrodite, under which she was worshipped at Corinth. (Paus. ii. 2. § 4; comp. viii. 6. § 2, ix. 17. § 4; Athen. xiii. p. 588.)
  • Melinaea (Μελιναία), a surname of Aphrodite, which she derived from the Argive town Meline. (Steph. Byz. s. v.; Lycoph. 403.)
  • Migonitis (Μιγωνίτις), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from a place, Migonium, in or near the island of Cranne in Laconia, where the goddess had a temple. (Paus. iii. 22. § 1.)
  • Morpho (Μορφώ), or the fair shaped, occurs as a surname of Aphrodite at Sparta. She was represented in a sitting posture, with her head covered, and her feet fettered. (Paus. iii. 15. § 8 ; Lycoph. 449.)
  • Nicephorus (Νικηφόρος), i. e. bringing victory, occurs as a surname of several divinities, such as Aphrodite. (Paus. ii. 19. § 6.)
  • Pandemos (Πάνδημος), i. e. "common to all the people," occurs as a surname of Aphrodite, and that in a twofold sense, first describing her as the goddess of low sensual pleasures as Venus vulgivaga or popularis, in opposition to Venus (Aphrodite) Urania, or the heavenly Aphrodite. (Plat. Sympos. p. 180; Lucret. iv. 1067.) She was represented at Elis by Scopas riding on a ram. (Paus. vi. 25. § 2.) The second sense is that of Aphrodite uniting all the inhabitants of a country into one social or political body. In this respect she was worshipped at Athens along with Peitho (persuasion), and her worship was said to have been instituted by Theseus at the time when he united the scattered townships into one great body of citizens. (Paus. i. 22. § 3.) According to some authorities, it was Solon who erected the sanctuary of Aphrodite Pandemos, either because her image stood in the agora, or because the hetaerae had to pay the costs of its erection. (Harpocrat. and Suid. s. v.; Athen. xiii. p. 569.) The worship of Aphrodite Pandemos also occurs at Megalopolis in Arcadia (Paus. viii. 32. § 1), and at Thebes (ix. 16. § 2). A festival in honour of her is mentioned by Athenaeus (xiv. p. 659). The sacrifices offered to her consisted of white goats. (Lucian, Dial. Meret. 7; comp. Xenoph. Sympos. 8. § 9; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 101; Theocrit. Epigr. 13.) Pandemos occurs also as a surname of Eros. (Plat. Symp. l. c.)
  • Paphia (Παφία), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the celebrated temple of the goddess at Paphos in Cyprus. A statue of Aphrodite Paphia also stood in the sanctuary of Ino, between Oetylus and Thalamae in Laconia. (Paus. iii. 36 ; Tac. Hist. ii. 2; Hom. Hymn. in Ven. 59; Apollod. iii. 14. § 2; Strab. xiv. p. 683.)
  • Peitho (Πειθώ). The personification of Persuasion (Suada or Suadela among the Romans), was worshipped as a divinity at Sicyon, where she was honoured with a temple in the agora. (Herod. viii. 11; Paus. ii. 7. § 7.) Peitho also occurs as a surname of other divinities, such as Aphrodite, whose worship was said to have been introduced at Athens by Theseus, when he united the country communities into towns (Paus. i. 22. § 3), and of Artemis (ii. 21. 1). At Athens the statues of Peitho and Aphrodite Pandemos stood closely together, and at Megara, too, the statue of Peitho stood in the temple of Aphrodite (Paus. i. 43. § 6), so that the two divinities must he conceived as closely connected, or the one, perhaps, merely as an attribute of the other.
  • Syria Thea (Σύρια Θεά), "the Syrian goddess," a name by which the Syrian Astarte or Aphrodite is sometimes designated. This Astarte was a Syrian divinity, resembling in many points the Greek Aphrodite, and it is not improbable that the latter was originally the Syrian Astarte, the opinions concerning whom were modified after her introduction into Greece; for there can be no doubt that the worship of Aphrodite came from the East to Cyprus, and thence was carried into the south of (Greece. (Lucian, De Syria Dea ; Paus. i. 14. § 6; Aeschyl. Suppl. 562.).
  • Urania (Ουρανία),A surname of Aphrodite, describing her as "the heavenly," or spiritual, to distinguish her from Aphrodite Pandemos. Plato represents her as a daughter of Uranus, begotten without a mother. (Sympos. p. 180; Xenoph. Sympos. 8. § 9.) Wine was not used in the libations offered to her. (Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 101 ; Herod. i. 105; Suid. s. v. nêphalia.)
  • Zephyritis (Ζεφυρίτις), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the promontory of Zephyrium in Egypt. (Athen. vii. p. 318; Callim. Epig. 31 ; Steph. Byz. s. v.
  • Zerynthia (Ζηρύνθια), a surname of Aphrodite, from the town of Zerinthus in Thrace, where she had a sanctuary said to have been built by Phaedra. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 449, 958 ; Steph. Byz. and Etym. Magn. s. v.)
  • Philommeidês (Φιλομμειδής or Φιλομειδής): Laughter Loving
  • Philommeidês (Φιλομμηδής): Genital Loving
  • Eustephanos (Ευστέφανος): Richly Crowned, Well Girdled
  • Aphrogeneia or Aphrogenês(Αφρογένεια or Αφρογενής): Foam Born
  • 'Khryseê (Χρυσεή): Golden
  • Dia (Δία): Divine, Shining
  • Dios Thugatêr (Διός Θυγάτηρ): Daughter of Zeus
  • Pothôn Mêtêr (Πόθων Μήτηρ): Mother of Desire
  • Pyrênaia (Πυρηναία): οf the Pyrenes(in Gaul)
  • Akraia (Ακραία): Of the Heights
  • Kêpois (Κήποις): Of the Gardens
  • Amyklaios (Αμύκλαιος): Of Amyklai (in Lakedaimonia)
  • Xenia (Ξενία): Of the Foreigner
  • Hoplismene : (Ωπλισμένη) Armed
  • Hêrê (Ήρη): Of Hera (Marriage)
  • Symmakhia (Συμμαχία): Ally (in Love)
  • Dôritis (Δωρίτις): Bountiful
  • Nymphia (Νυμφία): Bridal
  • Kataskopia (Κατασκοπία): Spying, Peeping
  • Psithyristês (Ψιθυριστής): Whispering
  • Praxis (Πράξις): Action (Sexual)
  • Epistrophia (Επιστροφία): She who Turns to (Love)

See also

References

  • Theoi Project, Aphrodite
  • Wikipedia. (2004). Aphrodite. Retrieved Sept. 22, 2004.
  • Homer, The Iliad - Greek Epic C9th-8th BC
  • The Homeric Hymns - Greek Epic C8th-4th BC
  • Pausanias, Guide to Greece - Greek Geography C2nd AD
  • Suidas - Byzantine Lexicographer C10th AD
  • The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology

Document Source

  • This page was originally sourced from Thelemapedia. Retrieved May 2009.