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==Cult==
 
==Cult==

Revision as of 21:36, 10 May 2010

Hekate - Section B

Cult

The oldest reference about Hekate in poetry is found in Hesiod's Theogony, while an inscription from late archaic Miletus naming her as a protector of entrances attest for her presence in archaic Greek religion. [2] Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, "she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition." [18]

She has been associated with childbirth, nurturing the young, gates and walls, doorways, crossroads, witchcraft, ghosts, lunar lore, necromancy, torches and dogs.

She had few public temples in the ancient world, however, small household shrines, which were erected to ward off evil and the malevolent powers of witchcraft, were quite common; her shrines were called Hekaea. Her most important cults were those of Eleusis, where she was one of the chief goddesses alongside with Demeter and Persephone, and the island of Samothrake, where she was worshipped as an associate-goddess of the Mysteries and was closely connected with Demeter.

Her most famous sanctuary in Caria was in Lagina, a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. [30] Lagina, where the famous temple of Hekate drew great festal assemblies every year, lay close to the originally Macedonian colony of Stratonikeia, where she was the city's patroness.

William Berg observes, "Since children are not called after spooks, it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat- refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens." [8b] But he cautions, "The Laginetan goddess may have had a more infernal character than scholars have been willing to assume." [8d] In Ptolemaic Alexandria and elsewhere during the Hellenistic period, she appears as a three-faced goddess associated with ghosts, witchcraft, and curses. Today she is claimed as a goddess of witches and in the context of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism. Some neo-pagans refer to her as a "crone goddess", [32] though this characterization appears to conflict with her frequent characterization as a virgin in late antiquity. [33] She closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia.

It is to be noted that Hekate plays little or no part in mythological legend. Her worship seems to have flourished especially in the wilder parts of Greece, such as Samothrace and Thessaly, in Caria and on the coasts of Asia Minor. In Greece her worship found ground on the east coast and especially in Aegina, where her aid was invoked against madness.

The most common form of offering to her was to leave fish or meat at a crossroads. Sometimes dogs themselves were sacrificed to her. This is sometimes offered as an indication of her non-Hellenic origin, as dogs very rarely played this role in genuine Greek ritual. [7]

In Ptolemaic Alexandria and elsewhere during the Hellenistic period, she appears as a three-faced goddess associated with ghosts, witchcraft, and curses. Today she is claimed as a goddess of witches and in the context of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism. Some neo-pagans refer to her as a crone. (The crone is a stock character in folklore and fairy tale, an old woman who is usually disagreeable, malicious, or sinister in manner, often with magical or supernatural associations that can make her either helpful or obstructing. She is marginalized by her exclusion from the reproductive cycle,... goddess,) though this characterization appears to conflict with her original virginal status in ancient Greece.


Festivals

Hekate was worshipped by both the Greeks and the Romans who had their own festivals dedicated to her. According to L. Ruickbie [34] the Greeks observed two days sacred to Hekate, one on the 13th of August and one on the 30th of November, whilst the Romans observed the 29th of every month as her sacred day.


Necromancy

Hecate along with Persephone and Haides presided over the oracles of the dead and the art of nekromanteia (necromancy), the summoning forth of the ghosts of the dead.


Sorcery

Being the chief goddess of magic arts and spells, Hekate is said to be the mother of the sorceresses Circe and Medea. She is constantly invoked, in the well-known idyll (ii) of Theocritus, in the incantation to bring back a woman's faithless lover.

In the Argonautica, a third century BCE Alexandrian epic based on early materials, Jason placates Hekate in a ritual prescribed by Medea, her priestess: bathed at midnight in a stream of flowing water, and dressed in dark robes, Jason is to dig a pit and offer a libation of honey and blood from the throat of a sheep, which was set on a pyre by the pit and wholly consumed as a holocaust, then retreat from the site without looking back. All these elements betoken the rites owed to a chthonic deity.

To the Christian Gnostics, who believed that magic had been brought to earth by fallen angels, Hekate represents one of the five Archons (Paraplex, Hekate, Ariouth, Typhon, Iachtanabas ), appointed to rule over the 360 demons of the "Middle," the aerial place below the zodiacal sphere or the circle of the sun, which fixes the Heimarmene. She has three faces and twenty-seven demons under her command. She occupies the third level in the hierarchy of the "Middle," between two female demons, long-haired Paraplex and Ariouth the Ethiopian, and two male demons, Typhon and Iachtanabas.


Cross-cultural parallels

Hekate closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia, the Latin equivalent of the Greek Trioditis.

The figure of Hekate can often be associated with the figure of Isis in Egyptian myth (mainly due to her role as sorceress). In Hebrew myth she is often compared to the figure of Lilith and the Whore of Babylon in later Christian tradition. Both were symbols of liminal points, and Lilith also has a role in sorcery. Some scholars ultimately compare her to the Virgin Mary.

Before she became associated with Greek mythology, she had many similarities with Artemis (wilderness, and watching over wedding ceremonies) and Hera (child rearing and the protection of young men or heroes, and watching over wedding ceremonies).

H. P. Blavatsky,[10] considers Hekate as the equivalent of the Egyptian goddess Hathor and then identifies Hathor as another, rather infernal aspect of Isis. This is supported from the fact that they are both lunar deities connected with magick, although Hekate seems to represent a liminal and chthonic aspect of Isis.

Both Hekate and Isis were symbols of liminal points. Lucius Apuleius (c. 123—c. 170 CE) in his work "The Golden Ass" associates Hekate with Isis as well,[aa] While Paul McKechnie and Philippe Guillaume in “Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World” [4] relate Hekate with Heqet, the Egyptian goddess of fertility and childbirth, who breathed life into the new body of Horus at birth.


Survival in pre-modern folklore

Hekate has survived in folklore as a 'hag' figure associated with witchcraft. Strmiska notes that Hekate, conflated with the figure of Diana, appears in late antiquity and in the early medieval period as part of an "emerging legend complex" associated with gatherings of women, the moon, and witchcraft that eventually became established "in the area of Northern Italy, southern Germany, and the western Balkans." [35]This theory of the Roman origins of many European folk traditions related to Diana or Hekate was explicitly advanced at least as early as 1807 [36] and is reflected in numerous etymological claims by lexicographers from the 17th to the 19th century, deriving "hag" and/or "hex" from Hekate by way of haegtesse (Anglo-Saxon) and hagazussa (Old High German). (John Minsheu and William Somner (17th century), Edward Lye of Oxford (1694-1767), Johann Georg Wachter, Glossarium Germanicum) [37] Such derivations are today proposed only by a minority [38] since being refuted by Grimm, who was skeptical of theories proposing non-Germanic origins for German folklore traditions.[39]

In the syncretism during Late Antiquity of Hellenistic and late Babylonian ("Chaldean") elements, Hekate was identified with Ereshkigal, the underworld sister (or counterpart) of Inanna in the Babylonian cosmography. In the Michigan magical papyrus (inv. 7), dated to the late third or early fourth century CE, Hekate Ereschigal is invoked against fear of punishment in the afterlife. [40]

(see: [Section B – Quotations VII])


Other names and epithets

  • Aedonaea (Lady of the Underworld)
  • Atalus (Tender, Delicate)
  • Curotrophus (Nurse of the Young)
  • Perseis : (Daughter of Perses / Perses: Destroyer)
  • Scylacagetis (Leader of the Dogs)
  • Trimorphis (Three-Formed, Three-Bodies)
  • Zerynthia (Of Mount Zerynthia [in Samothrace])
  • Anassa eneri (Queen of the those below -i.e the Dead)
  • Angelos. A surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped at Syracuse, and according to some accounts the original name of Hekate.
  • Antania (Enemy of mankind)
  • Apotropaia (that turns away/protects) [7]
  • Artemis of the crossroads
  • BRIMO (Brimô), the angry or the terrifying, occurs as a surname of several divinities, such as Hekate or Persephone. There is also another derivation of Brimo from Bromos, so that it would refer to the crackling of the fire, as Hekate was conceived bearing a torch.
  • Chthonia (of the earth/underworld) may mean the subterraucous, or the goddess of the earth, that is, the protectress of the fields, whence it is used as a surname of infernal divinities, such as Hekate, but especially of Demeter.
  • Core munagenes (Only Begotten) Maiden
  • Crataeis (the Mighty One)
  • Enodia (on the way) [16]
  • Klêidouchos (holding the keys) [2]
  • Kourotrophos (nurse of children [2]
  • Liparocredemnus (Bright-Coiffed, With Bright Headband)
  • Nyctopolus (Night Wandering)
  • Pheraea (Pheraia). 1. A surname of Artemis at Pherae in Thessaly, at Argos and Sicyon, where she had temples. 2. A surname of Hekate, because she was a daughter of Zeus and Pheraea, the daughter of Aeolus, or because she had been brought up by the shepherds of Pheres, or because she was worshipped at Pherae.
  • Phosphoros (bringing or giving light [2] Phosphorus also occurs as a surname of several goddesses of light, as Artemis]
  • Propolos (who serves/attends) [2] or "the attendant who leads,"
  • Propylaia (before the gate) [16]
  • Prytania (invincible Queen of the Dead)
  • Soteira (savior) [15]
  • Tricephalus or Triceps (The Three-Headed)
  • Trimorphe (three-formed) [16]
  • Triodia/Trioditis (who frequents crossroads) [16]

(see: Hekate - Section D # Quotations VIII)


Hymns to Hekate

Hesiodic Hymn

Hesiod describes Hekate’s wide-ranging divine powers in the following passage. The name of her father Perses (the destroyer) was connected with both Persephone, goddess of the underworld, and Perseis, the mother of the witches Aeetes and Kirke. Her mother Asteria (the starry one) was a goddess of the night.

"Asteria of happy name, whom Perses once led to his great house to be called his dear wife. And she conceived and bare Hekate whom Zeus the son of Kronos honoured above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honour also in starry heaven, and is honoured exceedingly by the deathless gods. For to this day, whenever anyone of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favour according to custom, he calls upon Hekate. Great honour comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favourably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her. For as many as were born of Gaia (Earth) and Ouranos (Heaven) [the Titanes] amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Kronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea. Also, because she is an only child, the goddess receives not less honour, but much more still, for Zeus honours her. Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents. And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hekate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker [Poseidon], easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less. So, then, albeit her mother's only child, she is honoured amongst all the deathless gods. And the son of Kronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Eos (Dawn). So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young (kourotrophos), and these are her honours." –


Homeric Hymn

"Kourotrophe [nurse of the young] [Hekate], give your ear to my prayer, and grant that this woman may reject the love-embrace of youth and dote on grey-haired old men whose powers are dulled, but whose hearts still desire."


Orphic Hymn

"Hekate Einodia, Trioditis [Trivia], lovely dame, of earthly, watery, and celestial frame, sepulchral, in a saffron veil arrayed, pleased with dark ghosts that wander through the shade; Perseis, solitary goddess, hail! The world’s key-bearer, never doomed to fail; in stags rejoicing, huntress, nightly seen, and drawn by bulls, unconquerable queen; Leader, Nymphe, nurse, on mountains wandering, hear the suppliants who with holy rites thy power revere, and to the herdsman with a favouring mind draw near."


A Prayer to Hecate from a Greek Magical Handbook

[Christopher A. Faraone, “Hymn to Selene – Hecate – Artemis from a Greek magical handbook (PGM IV 2714-83)”, in Mark Kiley, ed., Prayer from Alexander to Constantine: A Critical Anthology (New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 196-7]

“Hither Hecate, giant who protects Dione, Persian Baubo, Phroune, goddess who pours forth arrows, anwedded Lydian, untamed, of noble father, torch-holder, leader who bends down the necks (of mortals), Kore, hear me, O Artemis, you who have completely closed the gates of unbreakable adamantine and who even before were the greatest overseer, Lady, earth-cleaver, leader of the hounds, subduer of all, worshipped in the streets, three-headed, light-hearing, august virgin, I call you, fawn –slayer, wily lady of the underworld, who appears in many forms.

Hither Hecate, goddess of the crossroads, with your fire-breathing ghosts, you (i.e. the ghosts) who have got as your allotment horrible ambushes and irksome haunts, I call you, Hecate, with those who have died before their time and with those of the heroes, who hissing wildly with anger in their hearts have died without wife or children. You stand above the head and take sweet sleep from her. May her eyelids never be closely joined with each other, but rather let her be worn out over her wakeful thoughts about me. And if she is lying down with another man in her embrace, let her push that man away, let her put me down into her heart and let her immediately forsake him and quickly come stand near my doors, subdued in her soul for my wedding bed.”


References

Primary Sources

  • Homer's Epigrams- Greek Epic C9th-8th BC
  • Hesiod, Theogony - Greek Epic C8th-7th BC
  • The Homeric Hymns - Greek Epic C7th-4th BC


Secondary Sources

  • Aelian, On Animals - Greek Natural History C2nd - C3rd A.D.
  • Aeschylus, Fragments - Greek Tragedy C5th B.C.
  • Aeschylus, Suppliant Women - Greek Tragedy C5th BC
  • Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Apollonius Rhodius, The Argonautica - Greek Epic C3rd B.C.
  • Apuleius, The Golden Ass - Latin Epic C2nd AD
  • Aristophanes, Frogs - Greek Comedy C5th-4th BC
  • Aristophanes,Thesmophoriazusae - Greek Comedy C5th-4th BC
  • Aristophanes,Wasps - Greek Comedy C5th-4th BC
  • Athenaeus, “The Deipnosophists” – Greek author C2nd-3rd AD
  • Callimachus, Hymns – Greek Poet C3rd-2nd BC
  • Chaldean Oracles – Hellenistic Commentary on a poem C2nd AD
  • Cicero, De Natura Deorum - Latin Philosophy C1st B.C.
  • Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History - Greek History C1st BC
  • Euripides, Hellen - Greek Tragedy C4th BC
  • Euripides, Ion - Greek Tragedy C4th BC
  • Euripides, Medea - Greek Tragedy C4th BC
  • Greek Lyric I Sappho or Alcaeus, Fragments - Greek Lyric C6th BC
  • Greek Lyric III Stesichorus, Fragment 215 - Greek Lyric C7th-6th BC
  • Greek Lyric IV Bacchylides, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th BC
  • Hesiod, Catalogues of Women - Greek Epic C8th-7th BC
  • Hyginus, Fabulae – Latin Author C1st AD
  • Lycophron, Alexandra - Greek C3rd BC
  • Michael Psellus – Greek Historian & Philosopher C10th AD
  • Nonnos, Dionysiaca - Greek Epic C5th AD
  • Orphica Argonautica – Greek Epic C5th-6th AD
  • Ovid, Fasti - Latin Epic C1st BC - C1st AD
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses - Latin Epic C1st BC - C1st AD
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece - Greek Geography C2nd A.D.
  • Philodemus, Piety – Greek Philosopher C1st BC
  • Pindar, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th BC
  • Pindar, Paean 2 - Greek Lyric C5th BC
  • Pistis-Sophia –C2nd AD
  • Plutarch, Sayings of Kings and Commanders
  • Proclus, Hymn to Athena or Minerva
  • Proclus, on the book IV – Greek Philosopher C5th AD
  • Propertius, Elegies - Latin Elegy C1st B.C.
  • St. Quen of Rouen, Vita Eligii – Biography C7th AD
  • Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy - Greek Epic C4th AD
  • Saint Eligius, Sermo – French Bishop & writer C6th–7th AD
  • Schol. On Apollonius Rhodius, Musaios
  • Schol. On Theocritus
  • Seneca, Medea - Latin Tragedy C1st AD
  • Seneca, Oedipus - Latin Tragedy C1st AD
  • Seneca, Phaedra - Latin Tragedy C1st AD
  • Seneca, Troades - Latin Tragedy C1st AD
  • Sophocles, Root-cutters – Greek Tragedy C4th BC
  • Statius, Thebaid - Latin Epic C1st AD
  • Strabo, Geography – Greek Geographer C1st BC
  • Suidas - Byzantine Lexicographer C10th AD
  • Theocritus, Idyll ii. – Greek Poet C3rd BC
  • Plato, Timeo, - Greek Philosopher C4th-3rd BC
  • Tzetzes on Lycophron – Commentary C12th AD
  • Valerius Flaccus, The Argonautica - Latin Epic C1st AD
  • Virgil, Aeneid – Latin Epic C1st BC
  • Οrphic Hymns – Greek Poetry C3rd-2nd BC or C1st-2nd AD


Modern Sources

  1. "Pronunciation: \ˈhe-kə tē, ˈhe kət\"— "Hecate" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2009. ^ Webster, Noah (1866). A Dictionary of the English Language (10th edition), "Rules for pronouncing the vowels of Greek and Latin proper names", p.9: "Hecate..., pronounced in three syllables when in Latin, and in the same number in the Greek word Ἑκάτη, in English is universally contracted into two, by sinking the final e. Shakespeare seems to have begun, as he has now confirmed, this pronunciation, by so adapting the word in Macbeth.... And the play-going world, who form no small portion of what is called the better sort of people, have followed the actors in this word; and the rest of the world have followed them."
  2. Greek-English Lexicon, Henry George Liddell & Robert Scott.
  3. Jenny Strauss Clay, Hesiod's Cosmos, Cambridge University Press, 2003,
  4. McKechnie, Paul, and Philippe Guillaume. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World. Leiden: Brill, 2008. page 133
  5. Lewis Richard Farnell, The Cults of the Greek States, Clarendon Press, 1907, p. 549.
  6. Lewis Richard Farnell, (1896). "Hecate in Art", The Cults of the Greek States. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  7. "One of the features of the Lupercalia which has aroused the greatest amount of scholarly speculation is the use of a dog as sacrificial victim. Such a sacrifice was very unusual, both in Italy and in Greece." Alberta Mildred Franklin, The Lupercalia, Columbia University, 1921, p. 67. Franklin goes on to discuss the likelihood that dog sacrifice was closely connected with Thrace.
  8. William Berg, “Hecate: Greek or “Anatolian”?”, Numen, Vol. 21, Fasc. 2 (Aug., 1974);
    1. 8a. Berg 1974, p. 128: Berg comments on Hecate's endorsement of Roman hegemony in her representation on the pediment at Lagina solemnising a pact between a warrior (Rome) and an amazon (Asia),
    2. 8b. Berg 1974, p. 129.
    3. 8c. Berg 1974, p. 134. Berg's argument for a Greek origin rests on three main points: 1. Almost all archaeological and literary evidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland, and especially from Attica—all of which dates earlier than the 2nd century BCE. 2. In Asia Minor only one monument can be associated with Hecate prior to the 2nd century BCE. 3. The supposed connection between Hecate and attested "Carian theophoric names" is not convincing, and instead suggests an aspect of the process of her Hellenization. He concludes, "Arguments for Hecate's "Anatolian" origin are not in accord with evidence."
    4. 8d. Berg 1974, p. 137.
  9. Robert Von Rudloff, “Hecate in Early Greek Religion”.
  10. Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, “The Secret Doctrine”, Vol. I, p.386-403.
  11. Vasiliki Limberis, Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary And The Creation of Christian Constantinople, Routledge, 1994, pp. 126-127. " If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople, it was Hecate. Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. Like Byzas in one legend, she had her origins in Thrace. Since Hecate was the guardian of "liminal places", in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. Hecate's importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city, according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever-present torches, and with her pack of dogs, which served as her constant companions. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros' was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecate's defensive aid. Her epithet “φωσφόρος” -lightbearer- named the straits of the Bosphorus slightly corrupting her name. Hecate was also worshipped in a temple in the area that would become the Hippodrome. Instead of being destroyed, the temple was absorbed into the construction of the Hippodrome, so that the memory of the cult “was perpetuated".”.
  12. William Geoffrey Arnott , “Birds in the ancient world from A to Z”, p. 118-119.
  13. Yves Bonnefoy, Wendy Doniger, Roman and European Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, 1992, p. 195.
  14. Buffie Johnson, “Lady of the Beasts – The Goddess and her sacred animals”, p.160
  15. Sarah Iles Johnston, Hekate Soteira, Scholars Press, 1990.
  16. a. Sarah Iles Johnston, Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece‎, University of California Press, 1999, p. 207. 17.b. Sarah Iles Johnston, Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece‎, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 208-209. 17c. Sarah Iles Johnston, Restless Dead, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 211-212.
  17. Amanda Porterfield, Healing in the history of Christianity, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 72.
  18. Hornblower, Spawforth (Eds.), The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Third Edition, Oxford University Press, 1996, p. 671.
  19. Charles Duke Yonge, tr.), The Learned Banqueters, H.G. Bohn, 1854.
  20. William Martin Leake, The Topography of Athens, London, 1841, p. 492.
  21. Yves Bonnefoy, Wendy Doniger, Roman and European Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, 1992, p. 195; "Hecate" article, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1823.
  22. R. L. Hunter, The Argonautica of Apollonius, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 142, citing Apollonius of Rhodes.
  23. Daniel Ogden, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 82-83.
  24. Matthew Suffness (Ed.), Taxol: Science and Applications, CRC Press, 1995, p. 28.
  25. a. Frederick J. Simoons, Plants of Life, Plants of Death, University of Wisconsin Press, 1998, p. 143;

26b. Frederick J. Simoons, Plants of Life, Plants of Death, University of Wisconsin Press, 1998, pp. 121-124.

  1. Freize, Henry; Dennison, Walter (1902). Virgil's Aeneid. New York: American Book Company. pp. N111.
  2. Margaret F. Roberts, Michael Wink, Alkaloids: Biochemistry, Ecology, and Medicinal Applications, Springer, 1998, p. 16. "Hecate had a "botanical garden" on the island of Colchis where the following alkaloid plants were kept: Akoniton (Aconitum napellus), Diktamnon (Dictamnus albus), Mandragores (Mandragora officinarum), Mekon (Papaver somniferum), Melaina (Claviceps pupurea), Thryon (Atropa belladona), and Cochicum [...]"
  3. Bonnie MacLachlan, Judith Fletcher, Virginity Revisited: Configurations of The Unpossessed Body, University of Toronto Press, 2007, p. 14.
  4. Richard Cavendish, The Powers of Evil in Western Religion, Magic and Folk Belief, Routledge, 1975, p. 62.
  5. Walter Burkert, (1987) Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical, p. 171. Oxford, Blackwell.
  6. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, Penguin Books, 1977, p. 154.
  7. e.g. Donna Wilshire, Virgin mother crone: myths and mysteries of the triple goddess, Inner Traditions International, 1994, p213
  8. "In theurgy the queen of rites is Hecate, virgin goddess of the underworld..." Mark Edwards, Neoplatonic Saints: The lives of Plotinus and Proclus by Their Students, Liverpool University Press, 2000 ,liii; From a prayer addressed to Hecate: "[...]Lady, earth-cleaver, leader of the hounds, subduer of all, worshipped in the streets, three-headed, light-bearing, august virgin [...]" Michael Maas, Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook, Routledge, 2000 p167
  9. Leo Ruickbie, “Witchcraft Our of the Shandows”
  10. Michael Strmiska, Modern paganism in world cultures, ABC-CLIO, 2005, p. 68.
  11. Francis Douce, Illustrations of Shakspeare, and of Ancient Manners, 1807, p. 235-243.
  12. John Minsheu and William Somner (17th century), Edward Lye of Oxford (1694-1767), Johann Georg Wachter, Glossarium Germanicum (1737), Walter Whiter, Etymologicon Universale (1822)
  13. e.g. Gerald Milnes, Signs, Cures, & Witchery, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2007, p. 116; Samuel X. Radbill, "The Role of Animals in Infant Feeding", in American Folk Medicine: A Symposium Ed. Wayland D. Hand. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
  14. "Many have been caught by the obvious resemblance of the Gr. Hecate, but the letters agree to closely, contrary to the laws of change, and the Mid. Ages would surely have had an unaspirated Ecate handed down to them; no Ecate or Hecate appears in the M. Lat. or Romance writings in the sense of witch, and how should the word have spread through all German lands?" Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythlogy, 1835, (English translation 1900)
  15. Hans Dieter Betz, "Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus", History of Religions 19,4 (May 1980):287-295). The goddess appears as Hecate Ereschigal only in the heading: in the spell itself only Erschigal is called upon with protective magical words and gestures.
  16. William Gordon Holmes, The Age of Justinian and Theodora, 2003, pp. 5-6; "In 340 BC, however, the Byzantines, with the aid of the Athenians, withstood a siege successfully, an occurrence the more remarkable as they were attacked by the greatest general of the age, Philip of Macedon. In the course of this beleaguerment, it is related, on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise, but were foiled by reason of a bright light which, appearing suddenly in the heavens, startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger. To commemorate this timely phenomenon, which was attributed to Hecate, they erected a public statue to that goddess and, as it is supposed, assumed the crescent for their chief national device.”
  17. Christopher A. Faraone, “Hymn to Selene – Hecate – Artemis from a Greek magical handbook (PGM IV 2714-83)”, in Mark Kiley, ed., Prayer from Alexander to Constantine: A Critical Anthology (New York: Routledge, 1997), pp. 196-7