From Encyclopedia Thelemica
Jump to navigationJump to search

Asteria (star or starry) (In Greek: Αστερία / Asteria/): in Greek Mythology, she was (perhaps) the Titan Goddess of the oracles and prophecies of night, including prophetic dreams, the reading of the stars astrology, and necromancy.

The Myth

Asteria was a daughter of the Titan Coeus (according to Hygin. Fab. Pref. of Polus) and Phoebe. [1][2a][3a] She was the sister of Leto, and, according to Hesiod (Theog. 409) , the wife of Perses, by whom she became the mother of Hecate. [1][4a] Cicero (de Nat. Deor. iii. 16) makes her the mother of the fourth Heracles by Zeus. [4b] But according to the genuine and more general tradition, she was an inhabitant of Olympus, and beloved by Zeus. In order to escape from his embraces, she got metamorphosed into a quail (όρτυξ, /ortix/), threw herself into the sea, and was here metamorphosed into the island Asteria (the island which had fallen from heaven like a star), or Ortygia, afterwards called Delos. (Apollod. i. 2. ~ 2, 4. ~ 1; Athen. ix. p. 392; Hygin. Fab. 53; Callimach. Hymn. in Del. 37; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 73.) [2b][3b][6][7a-c][8

When Leto, her sister, was pregant with the twins [Artemis and Apollon] she was pursued relentlessly by the goddess Hera, who drove her from land to land preventing her from finding a place to rest and give birth. The floating island of Delos eventually provided her with refuge. [10][11][12]

According to a lost poem of Eudoxus of Cnidus, by Zeus, Asteria became the mother of the Heracles in the form in which Hellenes thought they recognized him (by interpretatio graeca) as he was worshipped among Phoenicians at Tyre. [5]

According to Nonnus, when Asteria turned herself into a quail and leapt into the sea, Poseidon took up the chase, so she transformed herself into the island of Delos. [9a,b,c]

Asteria and Phoebe on the Pergamon Altar.

Other mythical personages

  1. A daughter of Alcyoneus, the eldest of the Gigantes [Alcyonides] (Suidas, s. v. Alkuonides) [13]
  2. One of the Danaids (Apollod. ii. 1.5); [2c]
  3. A daughter of Atlas (Hygin. Fab. 250, where, perhaps, Asterope is to be read) ; [3c]
  4. A daughter of Helios (Heliades), (Nonnus, Dionysiaca) ; [9d-j) and
  5. A daughter of Hydis, who became by Bellerophontes the mother of Hydissus, the founder of Hydissus in Caria. (Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. 'Tluro's.)


1. Hesiod, Theogony 404, ff (trans. Evelyn-White): "Again, Phoibe came to the desired embrace of Koios. Then the goddess through the love of the god conceived and brought forth dark-gowned Leto . . . Also she bare Asteria of happy name, whom Perses once led to his great house to be called his dear wife. And she conceived and bare Hekate."

2a. Pseudo- Apollodorus 1.2.2, The Library (Trans. by Sir James George Frazer) : "Now to the Titans were born offspring: to Ocean and Tethys were born Oceanids, to wit, Asia, Styx, Electra, Doris, Eurynome, Amphitrite, and Metis; to Coeus and Phoebe were born Asteria and Latona; to Hyperion and Thia were born Dawn, Sun, and Moon; to Crius and Eurybia, daughter of Sea (Pontus), were born Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses;"

2a. Pseudo- Apollodorus 1.2.4 The Library (Trans. by Sir James George Frazer) : "And to Cronus and Philyra was born Chiron, a centaur of double form; and to Dawn and Astraeus were born winds and stars; to Perses and Asteria was born Hecate; and to Pallas and Styx were born Victory, Dominion, Emulation, and Violence."

2b. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library 1.4.1 (Trans. by Sir James George Frazer) [1.4.1]Of the daughters of Coeus, Asteria in the likeness of a quail flung herself into the sea in order to escape the amorous advances of Zeus, and a city was formerly called after her Asteria, but afterwards it was named Delos. But Latona for her intrigue with Zeus was hunted by Hera over the whole earth, till she came to Delos and brought forth first Artemis, by the help of whose midwifery she afterwards gave birth to Apollo.

2c. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library i 2.5 (Trans. by Sir James George Frazer) These daughters were borne to Danaus by a queen; but Gorgophone and Hypermnestra were borne to him by Elephantis. And Istrus got Hippodamia; Chalcodon got Rhodia; Agenor got Cleopatra; Chaetus got Asteria; Diocorystes got Hippodamia; Alces got Glauce; Alcmenor got Hippomedusa; Hippothous got Gorge; Euchenor got Iphimedusa; Hippolytus got Rhode. These ten sons were begotten on an Arabian woman; but the maidens were begotten on Hamadryad nymphs, some being daughters of Atlantia, and others of Phoebe. Agaptolemus got Pirene; Cercetes got Dorium; Eurydamas got Phartis; Aegius got Mnestra; Argius got Evippe; Archelaus got Anaxibia; Menemachus got Nelo. These seven sons were begotten on a Phoenician woman, and the maidens on an Ethiopian woman.

3a. Hyginus, Fabulae 31 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) : "From Polus [Koios] and Phoebe [were born] : Latone, Asterie."

3b. Hyginus, Fabulae 53 (trans. Grant) : "Though Jove [Zeus] loved Asterie, daughter of Titan [Koios], she scorned him. Therefore she was transformed in to the bird ortyx, which we call a quail, and he cast her into the sea. From her an island sprang up, which was named Ortygia. This was floating. Later Latona [Leto] was borne there at Jove’s command by the wind Aquilo [Boreas], at the time when the Python was pursuing her, and there, clinging to an olive, she gave birth to Apollo and Diana [Artemis]. This island later was called Delos."

3c. Hyginus, Fabulae 250 (trans. Grant) : (Teams which destroyed their drivers) “They destroyed Phaethon, son of Sol by Clymene. Laomedon, son of Ilus by Leucippe. Oenomaus, son of Mars by Asterie, daughter of Atlas. Diomede, son of Mars, by *the same. Hippolytus, son of Theseus, by the Amazon Antiope. Amphiaraus, son of Oicleus by Hypermnestra, daughter of Thestius. His own mares devoured Glaucus, son of Sisyphus, at the funeral games of Pelias. Horses destroyed Iasion, son of Jove by Electra, daughter of Atlas. Salmoneus, who sitting in his chariot, imitated the thunder, was struck by a thunderbolt, and the chariot, too.”

4a. Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 18 (trans. Rackham) : "How, again, if you think Latona [Leto] a goddess, can you refuse to think Hecate one, who is the daughter of Asteria, the sister of Latona?"

4b Cicero De Natura Deorum 3.18 trans. Francis Brooks (London: Methuen, 1896) : “The fourth [Hercules] is the son of Jupiter and Asteria, the sister of Latona, and is worshipped principally at Tyre, the mother city, according to tradition, of Carthage…”

5. Athenaeus, Deipnosophists, ix. p. 392 “… And concerning their [quails] origin, Phanodemus, in the second book of his History of Attica, says :— " When Erysichthon saw the island of Delos, which was by the ancients called Ortygia, because of the numerous flocks of quails which came over the sea and settled in that island as one which afforded them good shelter . . . . " And Eudoxus the Cnidian, in the first book of his Description of the Circuit of the Earth, says that the Phoenicians sacrifice quails to Hercules, because Hercules, the son of Asteria and Jupiter, when on his way towards Libya, was slain by Typhon and restored to life by Iolaus, who brought a quail to him and put it to his nose, and the smell revived him. For when he was alive he was, says Eudoxus, very partial to that bird.”

6a. Callimachus, Hymn 1 to Delos ff (trans. Mair ): "O my soul, wilt thou sing of holy Delos, nurse of Apollon? Surely all the Kyklades, most holy of the isles that lie in the sea, are goodly theme of song. But Delos would win the foremost guerdon from the Mousai, since she it was that bathed Apollon, the lord of minstrels, and swaddled him, and was the first to accept him for a god. Even as the Mousai abhor him who sings not of Pimpleia [fountain of the Mousai] so Phoibos abhors him who forgets Delos . . . Wind-swept and stern is she set in the sea, and, wave-beaten as she is, is fitter haunt for gulls than course for horses. The sea, rolling greatly round her, casts off on her much spindrift of the Ikarian water. Wherefore also sea-roaming fishermen have made her their home. But none need grudge that she be named among the first, whensoever unto Okeanos and unto Titanide Tethys the islands gather and she ever leads the way. Behind her footsteps follow Phoinikian Kyrnos, no mean isle, and Abantian Makris of the Ellopians, and delectable Sardo, and the isle [Kypros] whereto Kypris [Aphrodite] first swam from the water and which for fee of her landing she keeps safe. They are strong by reason of sheltering towers, but Delos is strong by aid of Apollon. What defence is there more steadfast? Walls and stones may fall before the blast of Strymonian Boreas; but a god is unshaken for ever. Delos beloved, such is the champion that encompasses thee about! Now if songs full many circle about thee, with what song shall I entwine thee? What is that which is pleasing unto thee to hear? Is it the tale how at the very first the mighty god [Poseidon] smote the mountains with the three-forked sword which the Tekhines fashioned for him, and wrought the islands in the sea, and from their lowest foundations lifted them all as with a lever and rolled them into the sea? And them in the depths he rooted from their foundations that they might forget the mainland. But no constraint afflicted thee, but free upon the open sea thou didst float; and thy name of old was Asterie, since like a star thou didst leap from heaven into the deep moat, fleeing wedlock with Zeus. Until then golden Leto consorted not with thee: then thou wert still Asterie and wert not yet called Delos. Oft times did sailors coming from the town of fair-haired Troizenos unto Ephyra within the Saronic gulf desery thee, and on their way back from Ephyra saw thee no more there, but thou hadst run to the swift straits of the narrow Euripos with its sounding stream. And the same day, turning thy back on the waters of the sea of Khalkis, thou didst swim to the Sunian headland of the Athenians or to Khios or to the wave-washed breast of Parthenia (the Maiden’s Isle), not yet called Samos--where the nymphai of Mykalessos, neighbours of Ankaios, entertained thee. But when thou gavest thou soil to be the birthplace of Apollon, seafaring men gave thee this name in exchange, since no more didst thou float obscure (adelos) upon the water, but amid the waves of the Aigaion Sea didst plant the roots of thy feet. And thou didst not tremble before the anger of Hera, who murmured terrible against all child-bearing women that bare children to Zeus, but especially against Leto."

6b. Callimachus, Hymn 4 to Delos 191 ff : "[Apollon, still in the womb, addresses his mother Leto :] `But mark thou, mother : there is to be seen in the water a tiny island, wandering over the seas. Her feet abide not in one place, but on the tide she swims even as stalks of asphodel, where the South Wind or the East Wind blows, withersoever the sea carried her. Thither do thou carry me. For she shall welcome thy coming.’ When he had spoken thus much, the other islands in the sea ran away. But thou, Asteria, lover of song, didst come down from Euboia to visit the round Kyklades--not long ago, but still behind thee trailed the sea-weed of Geraistos . . (lacuna) since they heart was kindled, seeing the unhappy lady in the grievous pangs of birth : `Hera, do to me what thou wilt. For I heed not they threats. Cross, cross over, Leto, unto me.’ So didst thou speak, and she gladly ceased from her grievous wandering and sat by the stream of Inopos . . . And she loosed her girdle and leaned back her shoulders against the trunk of a palm-tree . . . [Messenger Iris addresses Hera :] `Honoured Hera, of goddesses most excellent far . . . Leto is undoing her girdle within and island. All the others spurned her and received her not; but Asteria called her by name as she was passing by--Asteria that evil scum of the sea : thou knowest it thyself . . .' And Hera was grievously angered and spake to her [Iris] : `So now, O shameful creatures of Zeus, may ye all wed in secret and bring forth in darkness, not even where the poor mill-women bring forth in difficult labour, but where the seals of the sea bring forth, amid the desolate rocks. But against Asteria am I no wise angered for this sin, nor can I do to her so unkindly as I should--for very wrongly has she done a favour to Leto. Howbeit I honour her exceedingly for that she did not desecrate my bed, but instead of Zeus preferred the sea.' .. . In that hour, O Delos, all thy foundations became of gold : with gold thy round lake flowed all day, and golden foliage thy natal olive-tree put forth and with gold flowed coiled Inopos in deep flood. And thou thyself [Delos] didst take up the child from the golden earth and lay him in thy lap and thou [the baby Apollon] spakest saying : `O mighty and of many altars and many cities, bounteous Earth! Rich continents and ye islands set around lo! I am as thou see’st--hard of tillage; yet from me shall Apollon be called Delian, and none other among all lands shall be so beloved by any other god : not Kerkhnis so loved by Poseidon, Lord of Lekhaion, not Kyllene’s hill by Hermes, not Krete by Zeus, as I by Apollon; and I shall no more be a wandering isle.' Thus didst thou speak and the child drew the sweet breast. Wherefore from that day thou art famed as the most holy of islands, nurse of Apollon’s youth. On thee treads not Enyo nor Hades nor the horses of Ares . . . Asteria, island of incense, around and about thee the isles have made a circle and set themselves about thee as a choir . . . Asteria of many altars and many prayers, what merchant mariner of the Aigaion passes by thee with speeding ship? Never do such mighty winds as that blow upon him, but though need urges the swiftest voyage that may be, yet they speedily furl their sails and go not on board again, ere they have circled they great altar buffeted with blows and bitten the sacred trunk of the olive, their hands tied behind their backs. These things did the Nymphe of Delos devise for sport and laughter to you Apollon. O happy hearth of islands, hail to thyself! Hail also to Apollon and to her whom Leto bare!"

7a. Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 108 (trans. Melville) : "Asterie in the struggling eagle’s clutch [Zeus' disguise]."

7b. Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 185 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) : "That Titanis, whom Coeus sired, whoever he may be, Latona whom the great globe once refused the smallest spot to give her children birth. Not earth, nor sky, nor water would accept your goddess, outcast from the world, until Delos took pity on her wanderings and said, `You roam the land and I the sea, homeless’, and gave her drifting refuge there. She bore two children.'"

7c. Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 332 ff : "Her [Leto] whom once the Coniunx Regia (queen of heaven) [Hera] barred from the world, whom drifting Delos scarcely dared consent to harbour, when that island swam the sea. There, leaning on a palm, Pallas’ tree, Latona in spite of Juno [Hera] bore her twins; from there again she fled the wife of Jove [Zeus], hugging her new-born infants, both divine."

8a. Virgil, Aeneid iii. 121, (Trans. By H.R.Fairclough) “A rumour flies that Idomeneus, the chieftain, ahs left his father’s realm for exile, that the shores of Crete are abandoned, her homes are void of foes, and the deserted abodes stand ready for our coming. We leave the harbour of Ortygia and fly over the sea, past Naxos with its Bacchic revels on the heights, and green Donysa, Olearos, snow-white Paros, and the sea-strewn Cyclades, and thread the straits sown thick with islands. The sailors’ shouts rise in varied rivalry; the crews raise the cheer: ‘On to Crete and our forefathers!’ A wind rising astern attends us as we sail, and at last we glide up to the ancient shores of the Curetes. Eagerly, therefore, I work on the walls of my chosen city, call it Pergamum, and urge my people, who rejoice at the old name, to love their hearths and build a citadel with lofty roof. And now the ships were just drawn up on the dry beach; our youth were busy with marriages and new tillage, and I was giving laws and homes, when on a sudden, from a tainted quarter of the sky, came a pestilence and season of death, to the wasting of our bodies and the piteous ruin of trees and crops. Men gave up their sweet lives, or dragged enfeebled frames; Sirius, too, scorched the fields with drought; the grass withered, and the sickly crop denied sustenance. My father urges us to recross the sea and go again to Phoebus and Ortygia’s oracle, to pray for favour, and ask what end he grants to our weary lot, whence he bids us seek aid for our distress, whither bend our course.

8b. Virgil, Aeneid iii. 147, (Trans. By H.R.Fairclough) “It was night and on earth sleep held the living world. The sacred images of the gods, the Phrygian Penates, whom I had borne with me from Troy out of the midst of the burning city, seemed as I lay in slumber to stand before my eyes, clear in the flood of light, where the full moon streamed through the inset windows. Then thus they spoke to me and with these words dispelled my cares, ‘What Apollo is going to tell you when you reach Ortygia, he here utters, and he sends us unbidden to your threshold. We followed you and your arms when Dardania was burned; under you we traversed on ships the swelling sea; we, too, shall exalt to heaven your sons that are to be, and give empire to your city. Prepare mighty walls for the mighty, and do not shrink fro the long toil of flight. You must change your home. Not these the shores the Delian Apollo counseled, not in Crete did he bid you settle. A place there is, by Greeks named Hesperia, and ancient land, mighty in arms and in richness of the soil. There dwelt Oenotrians; now the rumour is that a younger race has called it from their leader’s name Italy. This is our abiding home; hence are Dardanus sprung and father Iasius, from whom first came our race. Come, arise, and with good cheer bear to your aged parent these certain tidings, to seek Corythus and the lands of Ausonia. Jupiter denies you the Dictaean fields.’

9a. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 2. 125 ff (trans. Rouse) : "In the sea, Earthshaker [Poseidon] chased Asterie in the madness of his passion."

9b. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 33. 336 ff : "Earthshaker [Poseidon] enamoured did not affright me, as he did the chaste Asterie, whom he hunted to and fro in the sea, riding restless before the changing wind, until Apollon rooted her in the waves immovable."

9c. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 42. 410 ff : "He [Poseidon] pursued Asterie, and she became a desert island."

9d. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 17. 269 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) : "He [Orontes the Indian chief, who led ] stept back and turned his gaze to the eastern expanse, and uttered his last words to Phaethon [Helios the sun] opposite : `O Helios . . . And if you have not forgotten your Klymene’s bed, protect Deriades, a sprout of your own stock, who has in him the blood of Astris (Sidereal Maiden) [i.e. the wife of Hydaspes and mother of Deriades] said to be your daughter [by Klymene].'" - Nonnus, Dionysiaca 17.269

9e. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 23. 236 ff : "[Dionysos addressesthe Indian river Hydaspes when he attempts to drown his troops :] `And if it is Asterie [daughter of Helios] your wife that makes you so proud, because she has the blood of Hyperion’s heavenly kin, my father burnt with fire the gold son of Helios the fiery charioteer [Phaethon].'"

9f. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 26. 32 ff : "You [Deriades king of the Indians] have in you the heavenly blood of a daughter of Phaethon [i.e. Astris, daughter of Helios], your blazing grandfather."

9g. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 26. 350 ff : "The emperor of the Indians [Deriades], son of Hydaspes the watery lover in union with Astris daughter of Helios, happy in her offspring--men say that her mother was Keto, a Naias daughter of Okeanos--and Hydaspes crept into her bower till he flooded it, and wooed her to his embrace with conjugal waves." 9h. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 100 ff : "My [Deriades] mother’s [Astris's] father, governor of the flaming stars, Phaethon [Helios], is himself a potentate all of fire."

9i. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 27. 189 ff : "[Dionysos addresses his troops during the Indian War :] `Let Astris wander away to the mountains, to bewail her son Deriades a slave in heavy chains: let her go, if she likes, to settle in Celtic land, that she also may turn into a tree with the Heliades and weep often in floods of sorrowful tears.'"

9j. Nonnus, Dionysiaca 33. 150 ff : "[Aphrodite addresses Eros :] `Helios mocks at me, and arms the offspring of Astris, the warrior Deriades his own daughter’s son, to destroy the Bassarides of womanmad Dionysos and to rout the love-stricken Satyroi of Bromios.'"

10a. Homeric Hymn 3 to Delian Apollo 50 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) : "[Leto, pregnant with Apollon, addresses the island of Delos :] `Delos, if you would be willing to be the abode of my son Phoibos Apollon and make him a rich temple--; for no other will ouch you, as you will find: and I think you will be rich in oxen and sheep, nor bear vintage nor yet produce plants abundantly. But if you have the temple of far-shooting Apollon, all men will bring you hecatombs and gather here, and incessant savour of rich sacrifice will always arise, and you will feed those who dwell in you from the hand of stangers; for truly your own soil is not rich.' So spake Leto. And Delos rejoiced and answered and said : `Leto, most glorious daughter of great Koios, joyfully would I receive your child the far-shooting lord; for it is all too true that I am ill-spoken of among men, whereas thus I should become very greatly honoured. But his saying I fear, and I will not hide it from you, Leto. They say that Apollon will be one that is very haughty and will greatly lord it among gods and men all over the fruitful earth. Therefore, I greatly fear in heart and spirit that as soon as he sees the light of the sun, he will scorn this island--for truly I have but a hard, rocky soil --and overturn me and thrust me down with his feet in the depths of the sea; then will the great ocean wash deep above my head for ever, and he will go to another land such as will please him, there to make his temple and wooded groves. So, many-footed creatures of the sea will make lairs in me and black seals their dwelling undisturbed, because I lack people. Yet if you will but dare to sware a great oath, goddess, that here first he will build a glorious temple to be an oracle for men, then let him afterwards make temples and wooded groves amongst all men; for surely he will be greatly renowned.' So said Delos. And Leto sware the great oath of the gods : `Now hear this, Gaia and wide Ouranos above, and dropping water of Styx (this is the strongest and most awful oath of the blessed gods), surely Phoibos shall have here his fragrant altar and precinct, and you he shall honour above all.' Now when Leto had sworn and ended her oath, Delos was very glad at the birth of the far-shooting lord."

11a. Pindar, Processional Song on Delos (trans. Sandys) "Hail. O heaven-built isle [Delos], most lovely scion of the children of bright-haired Leto, O daughter of the sea, thou unmoved marvel of the spacious earth, by mortal men called Delos, but by the blessed gods of Olympos known as the far-seen star (astra) of the dark-blue earth . . . For aforetime, that isle was tossed on the waves by all manner of whirling winds; but, when Leto, the daughter of Koios, in the frenzy of her imminent pangs of travail, set foot on her, then it was that four lofty pillars rose from the roots of earth, and on their capitals held up the rock with their adamantine bases. There it was that she gave birth to, and beheld, her blessed offspring."

11b. Pindar, Paean 5 : "And they made their homes in the scattered islands rich in flocks, and held far-famed Delos since Apollon of the golden locks gave them the body of Asteria to inhabit."

12. Pliny the Elder, Natural History 4. 66 (trans. Rackham): "Delos, celebrated for its temple of Apollo . . . According to the story, Delos for a long time floated adrift . . . Aristotle has recorded that it owes its name to its having suddenly appeared emerging from the water [i.e. because delos means 'manifest']; Aglaosthenes, however calls is the isle of Cynthia, and others Ortygia (Quail Island), Asteria (Star Island), Lagia (Hare Island), Chlamydia (Cloak-Island), Cynethus (Dog Island), and Pyripile (Fiery Island) because fire was first discovered there. It measures five miles in circumference. Its only eminence is Mount Cynthius."

13a. Suidas s.v. Alkyonides (trans. Suda On Line) : "Alkyonides emerai : Days of fine weather. People differ on their number. For Simonides [Greek poet C6th to 5th B.C.] in Pentathla says they are eleven, as does Aristotle [Greek writer C4th B.C.] in the History of Animals, but Demagoras of Samos [says] seven, and Philochorus nine. Hegesande tells the myth about them in his Memoirs as follows. They were the daughters of the giant Alkyoneus : Phosthonia, Anthe, Methone, Alkippa, Palene, Drimo, Asterie. After the death of their father they threw themselves into the sea from Kanastraion, which is the peak of Pellene, but Amphitrite made them birds, and they were called Alkyones from their father. Windless days with a calm sea are called Alkyonides [Halcyon-days]."

13b. Suidas s.v. Asterie : "Asterie (Starry) : One of the Alkyonides. Look also in [the entry on] Alkyonides." 14. But the sons of Egyptus came to Argos, and exhorted Danaus to lay aside his enmity, and begged to marry his daughters. Now Danaus distrusted their professions and bore them a grudge on account of his exile; nevertheless he consented to the marriage and allotted the damsels among them.29 First, they picked out Hypermnestra as the eldest to be the wife of Lynceus, and Gorgophone to be the wife of Proteus; for Lynceus and Proteus had been borne to Egyptus by a woman of royal blood, Argyphia; but of the rest Busiris, Enceladus, Lycus, and Daiphron obtained by lot the daughters that had been borne to Danaus by Europe, to wit, Automate, Amymone, Agave, and Scaea. These daughters were borne to Danaus by a queen; but Gorgophone and Hypermnestra were borne to him by Elephantis. And Istrus got Hippodamia; Chalcodon got Rhodia; Agenor got Cleopatra; Chaetus got Asteria; Diocorystes got Hippodamia; Alces got Glauce; Alcmenor got Hippomedusa; Hippothous got Gorge; Euchenor got Iphimedusa; Hippolytus got Rhode. These ten sons were begotten on an Arabian woman; but the maidens were begotten on Hamadryad nymphs, some being daughters of Atlantia, and others of Phoebe. Agaptolemus got Pirene; Cercetes got Dorium; Eurydamas got Phartis; Aegius got Mnestra; Argius got Evippe; Archelaus got Anaxibia; Menemachus got Nelo. These seven sons were begotten on a Phoenician woman, and the maidens on an Ethiopian woman. The sons of Egyptus by Tyria got as their wives, without drawing lots, the daughters of Danaus by Memphis in virtue of the similarity of their names; thus Clitus got Clite; Sthenelus got Sthenele; Chrysippus got Chrysippe. The twelve sons of Egyptus by the Naiad nymph Caliadne cast lots for the daughters of Danaus by the Naiad nymph Polyxo: the sons were Eurylochus, Phantes, Peristhenes, Hermus, Dryas, Potamon, Cisseus, Lixus, Imbrus, Bromius, Polyctor, Chthonius; and the damsels were Autonoe, Theano, Electra, Cleopatra, Eurydice, Glaucippe, Anthelia, Cleodore, Evippe, Erato, Stygne, Bryce. The sons of Egyptus by Gorgo, cast lots for the daughters of Danaus by Pieria, and Periphas got Actaea, Oeneus got Podarce, Egyptus got Dioxippe, Menalces got Adite, Lampus got Ocypete, Idmon got Pylarge. The youngest sons of Egyptus were these: Idas got Hippodice; Daiphron got Adiante (the mother who bore these damsels was Herse); Pandion got Callidice; Arbelus got Oeme; Hyperbius got Celaeno; Hippocorystes got Hyperippe; the mother of these men was Hephaestine, and the mother of these damsels was Crino.”


  • Hesiod, Theogony - Greek Epic C8th-7th B.C.
  • The Homeric Hymns - Greek Epic C8th-4th B.C.
  • Pindar, Odes - Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  • Pindar, Fragments - Greek Lyric C5th B.C.
  • Apollodorus, The Library - Greek Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Callimachus, Hymns - Greek Poetry C3rd B.C.
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece - Greek Geography C2nd A.D.
  • Hyginus, Fabulae - Latin Mythography C2nd A.D.
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses - Latin Epic C1st B.C. - C1st A.D.
  • Cicero, De Natura Deorum - Latin Philosophy C1st B.C.
  • Pliny the Elder, Natural History - Latin Encyclopedia C1st A.D.
  • Nonnos, Dionysiaca - Greek Epic C5th A.D.
  • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
  • Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. 'Tluro's(not quoted here)

External links