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(Statue of Dionysus. Marble, 2nd century CE (arms and legs were heavily restored in the 18th century), found in Italy. Richelieu Collection; seized during the French Revolution, 1793. Louvre Museum, Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman antiquities, Deno)

The Greek god Dionysus (or Dionysos, Iacchus or Iakkhos, Bacchus or Bakkhos, and also identified with the Italic Liber), represented not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficent influences, and the vital energies expressed in the growth of trees and vines. He was viewed as the promoter of civilization, a lawgiver, and lover of peace — as well as the patron deity of both agriculture and the theater.

Among his many titles were Firstborn (Protogonos), Fire-born, Roarer (Bromios), Twy-form (Diphues), Rain Giver, Flowery (Antheus), Fruity (Karpios), Black Footed, Two-Mothered (Bimater), and Torn Asunder (Sparagmos).